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  • Writer's pictureKerati Piyarat

What Is DeFi?

A Beginner’s Guide to Decentralized Finance

DeFi, short for decentralized finance, is a specific segment within the broader realm of cryptocurrency and blockchain industries that aims to provide decentralized alternatives to traditional financial opportunities. In conventional finance, financial institutions (referred to as CeFi) grant customers access to various possibilities like cash storage and loans. However, these offerings are overseen by centralized entities.

Utilizing distributed ledger technology (DLT), DeFi solutions replicate many of these opportunities but operate under the control of a multitude of participants who adhere to rules enforced by smart contracts. Furthermore, DeFi solutions often afford users greater flexibility in terms of storing and managing their own assets. Moreover, decentralized exchanges (DEXs) contribute to the decentralization of digital asset trading, distinguishing them from centralized digital asset platforms.

The most popular types of DeFi application

Decentralized exchanges (DEXs): These online platforms facilitate the exchange of different cryptocurrencies, enabling users to trade currencies like U.S. dollars for bitcoin or ether for DAI. DEXs eliminate the need for intermediaries, allowing users to directly trade cryptocurrencies with each other, thereby enhancing trust and security.

Stablecoins: Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies designed to maintain a stable value by pegging them to an external asset, such as the U.S. dollar or euro. This pegging helps stabilize the price of the stablecoin and provides a reliable means of conducting transactions within the DeFi ecosystem.

Lending platforms: These platforms employ smart contracts to replace traditional intermediaries like banks in managing lending activities. By utilizing smart contracts, lending platforms enable individuals to lend and borrow cryptocurrencies directly from one another, eliminating the need for intermediaries and streamlining the lending process.

"Wrapped" bitcoins (WBTC): WBTC refers to a mechanism that allows users to transfer bitcoins onto the Ethereum network. By wrapping bitcoins as WBTC, users can utilize them directly within Ethereum's DeFi ecosystem. This integration enables Bitcoin holders to earn interest on their holdings by lending them out through the decentralized lending platforms mentioned earlier.

Prediction markets: Prediction markets refer to markets where individuals can place bets on the outcome of future events, such as elections. The primary objective of decentralized finance (DeFi) iterations of prediction markets is to provide identical functionality as traditional prediction markets but without the need for intermediaries. The aim is to create a trustless and transparent platform where participants can engage directly with one another, eliminating the reliance on third-party entities.

In addition to these apps, new DeFi concepts have sprung up around them:

Yield farming: This concept targets experienced traders who are willing to undertake higher risks. Yield farming involves users carefully examining various DeFi tokens to identify opportunities that offer higher returns on investment.

Liquidity mining: In an effort to attract users to their platforms, DeFi applications employ the strategy of liquidity mining. This entails the distribution of free tokens to users who participate in providing liquidity to the platform. Liquidity mining has gained significant attention and popularity within the realm of yield farming.

Composability: DeFi applications operate on an open-source framework, meaning that the underlying code is publicly accessible for anyone to view. Consequently, these applications can be utilized to "compose" new applications by using the existing code as building blocks. Composability allows for the creation of innovative financial products and services by leveraging the interoperability of different DeFi protocols.

Money legos: Another way to describe the concept of composability is through the analogy of "money legos." Similar to how children snap together Lego blocks to construct buildings or vehicles, DeFi apps can be interconnected like "money legos" to build novel and sophisticated financial products. This modular approach enables the assembly of diverse protocols and functionalities, leading to the development of customizable and interconnected DeFi solutions.

Decentralized finance offers various advantages in comparison to conventional financial services. By leveraging smart contracts and distributed systems, the process of implementing a financial application or product becomes less intricate and more secure. As an example, numerous decentralized applications (dApps) are currently being built on the Ethereum blockchain, offering benefits such as decreased operational expenses and diminished entry barriers compared to TradFi.

Who invented DeFi?

DeFi does not have a single inventor credited to its creation. However, DeFi applications initially emerged on the Ethereum network, which was developed by Vitalik Buterin. Over time, the DeFi concept has expanded to other blockchain networks that utilize smart contracts to automate transactions. Some examples of such networks include Solana, Binance Smart Chain, and Avalanche.

What’s so special about DeFi?

DeFi possesses several notable attributes that set it apart.

Firstly, it is characterized by being "open," enabling individuals to utilize applications by creating a wallet without disclosing personal identification details, such as name and address. This, in theory, simplifies the process compared to setting up a traditional bank account.

Secondly, DeFi allows for the near-instantaneous movement of funds through blockchain technology, eliminating the need to wait for bank transfers to clear.

Thirdly, the interest rates offered in DeFi applications are often more favorable than those found in traditional banks, although transaction costs may vary depending on the specific blockchain network.

Lastly, DeFi applications exhibit interoperability, often referred to as "money Legos." This composability enables users to create, modify, combine, connect, or build upon existing DeFi products without requiring permission. However, this aspect can also be considered a weakness for DeFi, as a vulnerability or corruption in a critical component, such as the DAI stablecoin, could potentially lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem built around it.

Is investing in DeFi safe?

Investing in DeFi carries inherent risks and is considered a risky endeavor. While some view DeFi as the future of finance and an opportunity for significant gains by investing in disruptive technology early, it can be challenging for newcomers to discern between reliable and unreliable projects. Numerous instances of failed DeFi applications serve as cautionary examples.

As DeFi gained traction and popularity in 2020, several projects, such as YAM, experienced rapid crashes, with market capitalization plummeting from $60 million to $0 within a span of just 35 minutes. Similar fates befell other DeFi projects like Hotdog and Pizza, resulting in substantial losses for many investors.

Moreover, DeFi is susceptible to bugs, which unfortunately remain prevalent. Although smart contracts are powerful, once the rules are embedded into the protocol, they are difficult to alter. This permanence can amplify the risk associated with bugs, as they become permanent flaws in the system.

Therefore, investing in DeFi should be approached with caution due to the inherent risks involved, including the potential for significant financial losses and the prevalence of bugs within the ecosystem.


In conclusion, decentralized finance (DeFi) offers a revolutionary approach to financial services, providing individuals with greater control over their assets and access to innovative financial products. With features such as open access, near-instantaneous transactions, favorable interest rates, and interoperability, DeFi has captured the attention of investors and technology enthusiasts alike. However, investing in DeFi comes with inherent risks, including the volatility of projects and the prevalence of bugs within smart contracts. Therefore, caution should be exercised, and thorough research conducted before engaging with DeFi applications. Despite the risks, DeFi continues to drive innovation and reshape the financial landscape, offering exciting opportunities for those willing to navigate its dynamic and evolving ecosystem.

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